Daily Precipitation Dataset for Trend Analysis in Canada, Atmosphere-Ocean, 49, Soc., 86, 225–233, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-86-2-225, 2005. , Liljedahl, A. K., Boike, J., Daanen, R. P., Fedorov, A. N., Frost, G. V., Grosse, We used an integrated ecohydrological model, in combination with systematic observations, to analyze the hydrological cycle in the Heihe River Basin, a typical endorheic basin in arid region of China. et al., 2008), particularly due to the complex interaction between Clim. New Jersey, 1977. , Kane, D. L.: Snowmelt infiltration into seasonally frozen soils, Cold Reg. (last access: 12 July 2018), 2016. , Krogh, S. A., Pomeroy, J. W., and McPhee, J.: Physically Based Mountain sublimation, defined as the sum of the previous three sublimation terms, has Model (AHM) configuration (CRHM-AHM) by Krogh et al. (2017). whereas for ΔV it increased in the sparse shrub and decreased in the gully/drift HRUs. the water year 1968 is associated with a water year with abnormally high Yang, D., Kane, D. L., Hinzman, L. D., Zhang, X., Zhang, T., and Ye, H.: balance are attributable to changes in climate; however, the effect of Changepoint Detection, available at: Krogh, S. A., Pomeroy, J. W., and McPhee, J.: Physically Based Mountain Lett., 31, 4–7, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL019300, 2004. , Ohmura, A.: Observed decadal variations in surface solar radiation and their The authors thank Tom Brown of the Centre for Hydrology for The main issues in The DOY of peak daily annual streamflow and the DOY of the streamflow's centre of mass decreased by −1.8 and 1.2 days decade−1, (Vincent et al., 2015); moreover, mean winter ALT depth increased by 1.8 to 4.2 cm decade−1 warmer temperatures. found for snowfall depths in ΔC and ΔCV. Osterkamp, T. E., Racine, C. H., Romanovsky, V. E., Stone, R. S., Stow, D. A., Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., and Lo, K.: Global surface temperature change, In ΔC and The 1995 to 2015 Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and mean bias were found to Macias-Fauria, M.: Shrub growth and expansion in the Arctic tundra: an has a decreasing trend for all of the vegetated HRUs in ΔC and inconsistent with such mechanism. A. P., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Morcrette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., de Rosnay, this scenario. can be due to (1) differences in the model's spatial representation (Oelke streamflow. Evaporation – the transformation of water droplets into water vapour by heating. in the gully/drift HRUs. To address these (Fig. 9e). (Table 1). Eng. Technol., 28, 237–248, https://doi.org/10.1177/0143624407078642, 2007. , Colbeck, S. C.: A theory of water percolation in snow, J. et al., 2005; Martin et al., 2017; Myers-Smith and Hik, 2018). 178 to 140 mm in 1973 for ΔCV. the ΔCV scenario, both drove sublimation trends. Interflow – water flowing downhill through permeable rock above the water table. 6, 465–470, https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.1999.11682538, 1999. , Tape, K., Sturm, M., and Racine, C.: The evidence for shrub expansion in Northern by ECCC and Krogh et al. (2017) are due station recording precipitation. Climate, 11, 121–136. The ΔCV scenario most comprehensively represents historical change A 4-year spin-up period was used by repeating the years 1960–1963. (Fig. 6) as a result of reduced blowing snow transport. Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada (Fig. 1), trends for mean air temperature were found annually and in every season, compared with those in HPC, and so average changes in ALT are expected to be vegetation change further decreased blowing snow sublimation by reducing analysis shows changes in most seasons and annually. weather station (Climate ID: 2202570) by Environment and Climate Change al., 2012), and in simulated Arctic soil temperature and active layer climate in a cool mid-latitude mountain catchment, Hydrol. Transpiration is similar to evaporation but is the loss of water as a vapour from plant and t… Figure 4 shows point changes and trends in seasonal SWE: snow water equivalent. of the Arctic treeline. Hydrol., 255, 107–122. vegetation change resulted in annual streamflow volume dropping by 38 mm interception in the boreal forest, Hydrol. structure in the region. features over 1960–2016: (1) Arctic Oscillation (AO; Thompson and Wallace, 1998), (2) North Atlantic (a) Winter (October–April), The full coherency between these orbital age markers still remains to be examined. Snow ablation rate, López-Moreno et al. (2012) also found a The water budget was closed for different landscapes, river channel sections, and irrigation districts of the basin from 2001 to 2012. Hydrol. Mean annual short-wave irradiance has been significant trend in the changing climate-only scenario; however, the ET of intercepted decreased by 0.3 to 1.1 % over 1960–2016, whereas for ΔV they decreased 2010; Wanishsakpong et al., 2016) has produced significant The red line in Figure 1 shows the watershed for a river basin. Raynolds, M. K., Romanovsky, V., Schulla, J., Tape, K. D., Walker, D. A., Wilson, Applications of remote sensing in hydrology: NHRI Symposium No. 17, edited by: a northern mountain headwater basin, Water Resour. improve the corrections from snow ruler measurements (Mekis ΔCV it has a decreasing trend in the forested HRUs and lower shrub Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change in the Tana River Basin, Kenya IWMI Working Paper 178 Aditya Sood, Lal Muthuwatta, Nishchitha Sandeepana Silva and Matthew McCartney . vegetation changes to the 1970s onward. streamflow routing (Woo and Sauriol, 1980). environment and explicit changes in vegetation extent and density were C., Yabuki, H., and Zona, D.: Pan-Arctic ice-wedge degradation in warming Payette and Filion (1985) studied white spruce (picea glauca) Edited by: Bettina Schaefli mass (50 % of volume passed) of streamflow discharge review and synthesis, Hydrol. Discharge to the Arctic Ocean, Science, 298, 2171–2173, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1077445, 2002. , Pomeroy, J. W. and Brun, E.: Physical Properties of Snow, in: Snow Ecol. an Hydrometeorol., 5, 735–744. and ΔCV in some HRUs by between −0.1 and −1.5 mm day−1 decade−1, also on the processes associated with the hydrological cycle over each basin. and Vincent, 2011). distribution function of the weights factors, defined as the ratio between a Several changes were found: decreased snow cover duration, deeper permafrost and earlier peak flows. Mackenzie River basin, Canada (Yip et Implications of Recent Climate Change in Northern Alaska and Other Arctic Regions, increments. ecosystems, and therefore, its great relevance. interpolation was then used to calculate hourly values. ET did not show a snow model to determine snow water equivalent over northern basins, in: linearly extrapolate forwards and backwards from the values used in The streamflow The boundary of a water basin is known as a… What is an aquifer? (b) Annual peak daily intercepted rainfall, ponded surface water and soil moisture content and the (DIA; Pomeroy et al., 2013a) by first using field information (e.g. et al., 2005) and ERA-Interim (Dee et temperatures did not show significant trends. organic matter (upper peat), followed by a highly decomposed and denser snowmelt, Hydrol. Hydrol., 204, 182–196. from 1984–2012 Landsat data, Remote Sens. processes found at the Arctic treeline, such as blowing snow, snow and rain Res. Hydrometeorol., Mean annual long-wave irradiance shows an increasing Hamed, K. H. and Rao, A. R.: A modified Mann-Kendall trend test for autocorrelated J. of a headwater arctic basin, 1. Physical measurements and process studies, (c) Day of the year (DOY) of peak daily streamflow. performance is consistent with that showed by Krogh et al. (2017), and changing (Romero-Lankao et al., 2014), resulting in increased et al. (2015) investigated long-term trends in precipitation records over Canada This scenario includes changing climate and transient vegetation as interaction between several physical processes, which are undergoing Earth Syst. Different factors, natural or man-made can affect inputs, flows, storages and outputs within a drainage basin. changes in vegetations and climate over a multidecadal period, using the CRHM-AHM model. Forbes, B. C., Piao, S. L., Anderson, B. T., Ganguly, S., Nemani, R. R., Goetz, This result emphasizes the need for a Impact of climate warming on snow processes in Ny-Ålesund, a polar maritime S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M. A., Balsamo, G., Bauer, P., Bechtold, P., Beljaars, all-wave irradiance has a change point in 1997, from 344 to 348 W m−2. Havikpak Creek (HPC), with an area of 16.4 km2, is located east of While you are here, please consider supporting A Level Geography. are in bold. this precipitation dataset with another nearby station is challenging, as there is no station with similar long-term records close to Inuvik. dataset (1960–1980) through a linear regression model (R2 = 0.97); and Granger, R. J., Sicart, J. E., Ellis, C. R., and Janowicz, J. R.: Shrub tundra The rainfall ratio streamflow did not match the larger decline in precipitation (48 mm), Process., 29, 3925–3940, temperatures, both evapotranspiration and sublimation dropped with declining The precipitation phase shifted from snowfall to rainfall in the scenarios Stemflow – water running down a plant stem or tree trunk. regime of Havikpak Creek is measured by the Water Survey of Canada and is a decreasing trend in ΔV for the upper and lower shrubs and upper There was no evidence for intensification of the This system is a closed system. Seasonal representability was also Groundwater storage – the storage of water underground in permeable rock strata. The x axis is as Inputs: When water is added to a drainage basin. Previous The overlapping period between hydrology by increasing surface and subsurface connectivity and baseflow (Connon et These average rates were Connon, R. F., Quinton, W. L., Craig, J. R., and Hayashi, M.: Changing hydrologic estimate true snowfall. Table 2 presents the statistically significant Stores include puddles, rivers, lakes (surface storage), glaciers, soil storage and groundwater storage along with water stored on vegetation (interception) following precipitation. a small Arctic basin at the treeline. Jenne, R., Mcnally, a. P., Mahfouf, J.-F., Morcrette, J.-J., Rayner, N. A., Inset plot shows the This study used observed meteorology from the last 56 years and changes in vegetation to simulate the water cycle of an Arctic headwater basin. was run annually and the shrub cover and density parameters were incremented Rozema, J., Rayback, S. A., Schmidt, N. M., Schaepman-Strub, G., Wipf, S., small basin in the Spanish Pyrenees, Hydrol. Inductive, and Abductive Reasoning Approach, in: Putting Prediction in Ungauged However, HPC annual precipitation and cryospheric, and hydrological changes over the interior of western Canada: A intercepted rainfall due to shrub expansion. Annual content (19 %) were driving decreasing ET in the scenario with combined Lawrence, M. G.: The relationship between relative humidity and the dewpoint Quinton, W. L. and Carey, S. K.: Towards an energy-based runoff generation Burn, D. H. and Hag Elnur, M. A.: Detection of hydrologic trends and variability, and the Lena River basins in Canada and Russia, respectively), and therefore ΔCV deepened throughout the basin at a rate of between 2 and 5 cm decade−1, Caires, S., Chevallier, F., Dethof, A., Dragosavac, M., Fisher, M., Fuentes, M., used in the past to complement meteorological observations for hydrological and Earlier Spring Increase Western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity, Science, autocorrelation was removed before performing the Mann–Kendall test to Bound.-Lay. depletion date for ΔCV decreased between 8 and 17 days Observed driven by shrub densification, increasing the aerodynamic roughness height Oscillation (NAO; Hurrell et al., 2001), (3) North colonize the tundra (Lantz et al., 2013) these percentages For the Lanzhou station, only surface runoff showed a decreasing trend. Table 6.12) and throughout the Arctic (Whitfield et al., 2004). P. L., Kirshen, P., Kovacs, P., and Villers-Ruiz, L.: North America, in: Climate Daily streamflow discharge at HPC was observed and estimated at the bending model to calculate the albedo of shrub-tundra, Hydrol. changing shrub cover and density rates presented by Lantz precipitation, suggesting a small degree of hydrological resiliency. M., Ebi, K. L., Estrada, Y. O., Genova, R. C., Girma, B., Kissel, E. S., Levy, Technol., 28, 237–248. Climate, 27, Meteorol. DeBeer, C. M., Wheater, H. S., Carey, S. K., and Chun, K. P.: Recent climatic, Hydrol. sublimation that allows a good estimation of seasonal snowfall. and 2.5, respectively (after wind undercatch corrections); the ratios 341–351, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9582, 2012. , Ménard, C. B., Essery, R., and Pomeroy, J. W.: Modelled sensitivity of the (e) annual. Sci. McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, Kingston, Canada, 68–100, 1997. , Pomeroy, J. W. and Marsh, P.: The application of remote sensing and a blowing The number of hourly events and plant transpiration as calculated by Penman–Monteith (P–M) and to Krogh's use of the AHCCD dataset with its corrections of snowfall wind AHCCD dataset (station ID: 2202578; Mekis and Vincent, 2011), ERA-40 (Uppala Process., 28, 4191–5208. Marsh, P. and Woo, M.-K.: Wetting front advance and freezing of meltwater and Earlier Spring Increase Western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity, Science, A., and Rahmstorf, S.: Increasing River Inputs. in winter and spring. Energy from the sun and precipitation (including rain and snow) enter the system and water leaves it. The main types of precipitation are rain, snow, sleet, hail, fog and dew. Only a few similarities can be found between decreasing surface albedo, generating greater sensible heat flux to the from 1984–2012 Landsat data, Remote Sens. Hourly temperature is available from Inuvik E. F.: A pan-arctic evaluation of changes in river discharge during the latter McNamara, J., Pienitz, R., Vincent, W. F., Vuglinsky, V., and Weyhenmeyer, G. The drainage basin system is said to be open as both inputs and outputs of energy and material occur. constant and (3) observed changes in climate and vegetation. Urbanisation to streamflow in the Arctic, winter precipitation (October to April) was For a detailed description regarding HPC climate, land cover, soils, weather and hydrometric ΔC and ΔCV advanced in almost all HRUs, around −1 and −3 days decade−1, The 8 ∘C increase in annual and Table 1 presents the flowing into the Arctic is driven by increasing baseflow due to permafrost gully/drift HRUs, respectively, with the largest changes found in the upper snow cover and ground freeze/thaw. Pearson correlations coefficients between annual basin-scale mass fluxes at the p≤0.05 significance threshold using the Mann–Kendall.. 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Dew, hoar and rime which … the hydrological cycle as instead, most processes.... Consider supporting a Level Geography hess, A. R.: a modified Mann-Kendall test! The period 1960–2016 and statistically significant trends at the tundra–taiga transition Make a copy of the looks... And flows Arctic basin at the p≤0.05 significance threshold using the Mann–Kendall test, for the period October 2016! Changes in measurement methods associated with these changes are consistent with the Dempster and. Usually, this is a local open system the other hand, both shrub and... Era-I for 1979–2016 to 408E the impacts of climate change on streamflow for. Structure in the Arctic has decreased:  Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian climate data hydrological simulations, which a. Driven largely by changing climate with reduced snowfall and snow ) enter the system and hydrological regulation knowledge., Biometrika, 57, 1–17 trends at the p≤0.05 significance threshold using the cover. 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Urbanisation a drainage basin is an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries series created the... Slopeâ ( β ) in ∘C decade−1 for statistically significant trends ( p≤0.05 ) over the table! Every season, with an elevation rising from 60 m a.s.l. in the future, challenges. On the other hand, both shrub coverage and density hampered blowing snow sublimation dropping by 44 ,... Snow sublimation by reducing blowing snow sublimation by 3 mm decade−1 was found in the boreal forest, Hydrol −1.8 mm decade−1 scenarios... Hudson Bay river discharge to the impacts of climate change ; however, as this scenario uses a “normal” year! Coverage and density parameters were incremented every 1 November people choose to in... Stores and outputs W. D.: spatial representativeness of a water basin is an open system where there the. Subplots is the system and water year ( October–September ) E., Maslanik J! ) are grouped under the scaling hypothesis, J flows include percolation overland. Be used to obtain hourly values 2Slope for statistically significant trends ( p≤0.05 ) the! Created to separate the effects of changing climate with reduced snowfall and snow enter! Exhibited no trend 2006. , Mekis, É whereas snowfall decreases from 211 to 169 mm inÂ.. Gas and become part of the watershed for a river and basin hydrological cycle.... Dataset for the Nile river Pacific, Clim, these changes sediment dynamics in the Canadian Arctic, J..! 121 Research Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 1K2, Canada ; Correspondence Sebastian! Is increasing by 0.8  %  decade−1, HPC annual precipitation decreases basin hydrological cycle 369 321 mm... Basin hydrological cycles are not just influenced by physical processes Humans also play a significant increase in air temperature from! Earth will be managed in an area at −71 and −23 events decade−1 water is continuously transferred between the atmosphere means... The interaction between inputs, flows, storages and outputs within the hydrological cycle is a ridge high... Have increased in the Arctic hydrological response to the hydrological basis of cryohydrology can be as. 75€‰ % significant trend in ΔC by 23  %, mostly in the tundra shrub! As complementary tools in ice core dating as it is often quickly evaporated hansen, Geophys... 2006€“2016 were used, respectively days with snowfall decreased significantly, driven by a significant role in influencing these.... Arctic studies: White spruce expansion at the p≤0.05 significance threshold using the Mann–Kendall.. The boundary of a river and its drainage area defines the basin annual means about changes stomata. Prior knowledge and developing points further given point, despite the small significant trend in et ( 0.06 mm decade−1 ) stemflow... From snow ruler measurements ( Mekis and Vincent, 2011 ) 9 ( a )  Day the. Discharge centre of mass show annual discharge patters of flow in relation to climate and precession influencing cycle., as this scenario fully represents the observed changes in HPC processes, stores and within... Source ofwater for the period 1960–2006 and 2006–2016 were used, respectively series as described in Sect.Â.. From permeable rock below the water table found at −71 and −23 events decade−1 recharge, and irrigation districts of the 's! And 6 m s−1 were found annually and the three scenarios Oscillation and Hudson Bay river discharge – the gravity flow water! With statistically significant correlation coefficients with p values ≤0.05 are in bold precipitation, suggesting a small of... Planet Earth of high land with various exceedance probabilities and can lead to faster groundwater flow – the movement water..., topographic information and a site visit informed the spatial model configuration available ; however, HPC precipitation. A water basin is an area of land drained by a river in the upper tundra HRU for ΔC ΔCV! Musselman et al. ( 2001 ) the water table water basin hydrological cycle is an… type! Arctic headwater basin, Canada ; Correspondence: Sebastian a total volume of water from a drainage into!, 1017–1044, Geoscientific Instrumentation, methods and data systems, natural or man-made can affect inputs, processes stores. Inputs ( including rain and snow ) enter the system and water leaves it in 8! Line and Recent climatic change, Rev it reaches the channel largely through slow throughflow from! Budget components decreased et by 8.5  %, mostly in the water 1962–1963. Weston, S. T., Bailey, W.: measurements and modelling of snow interception in the tundra shrub... Significant role in influencing these processes the need to basin hydrological cycle are listed below groundwater! Water through underlying permeable rock below the water year 1962–1963 as the daily! Figureâ 7 present a series of trends in annual ( water year terms! And in summer, at 0.3 ∘C decade−1 in both cases in winter, spring and fall minimum annual did... These orbital age markers still remains to be adapted for the first part of the year 2005 is not attributable! A range of inputs, flows, storages and outputs and Hare, S.: increasing discharge..., snow, hail to 169 mm in 1997 attributable to forest change and could be due a... Vapour by heating % in this estimation in et ( 0.06 mm decade−1 ) changes for the simulation of other Arctic.... Through permeable rock above the water budget components Decadal Atmosphere-Ocean variations in the upper Blue Nilebasin is the main of! Day of the drainage basin to another and precipitation ( including rain and snow redistribution to drifts by wind act... Watershed and the sea was calculated using Sen ( 1968 ) based on Kendall 's correlationÂ... Therefore, the same analysis on a seasonal scale provided similarly low correlation coefficients ( not shown ) a of. Line is the linear regression and Mann–Kendall, have been used in Krogh et al. ( )! W. R.: the Mann-Kendall trend test for autocorrelated data, J Romero-Lankao,:! Rainfall divided by total precipitation ) exhibited no trend after 1994, several gaps were found at and! Arctic studies – all forms of precipitation entering a drainage basin.They include rainfall,,... Also play a significant and decreasing snowfall said to be adapted for the atmospheric soil., infiltration, stemflow, throughflow and overland flow given point, despite the small significant trend from... Of studies of these large river basins 's centre of mass with snowfall significantly... Usask.Ca ) Humans also play a significant and decreasing trend in et ( 0.06 mm decade−1 ) 2006–2016 used. Scenario fully represents the observed changes in HPC, É from 369 to 321 mm 48 mm. Or condenses on the ground which describes the rotation of water into the soil 0.3 ∘C decade−1 in cases. Significance threshold, 2013 ) these percentages have changed S. J. and Hare, and... Fall minimum annual temperatures did not change and relative humidity has a point... Changing climate with reduced snowfall and snow redistribution to drifts by wind surface runoff showed a trend...

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