It was on Yom Kippur that the Jewish people were forgiven for the sin of the golden calf, G-d re-established the covenant with His people, and the Torah was given anew. Likely the older of the two goes as follows:[3] "Akiva, noticing a stone at a well that had been hollowed out by drippings from the buckets, said: If these drippings can, by continuous action, penetrate this solid stone, how much more can the persistent word of God penetrate the pliant, fleshly human heart, if that word but be presented with patient insistency. [3][4] According to some sources, he was descended from converts to Judaism.[5]. he expired. A scholar so great that he would be compared to Moses was an illiterate man in mid-life! Legendary allusion to this change in Akiva's life is made in two slightly varying forms. The story of his death is recorded in masechet Brachot (61b) in connection with the mitzvah of loving G-d—something Rabbi Akiva was able to do despite, or might we say, because he was being martyred. Crowns: Moses Visits Rabbi Akiva's Beit Midrash": "Rachel, Wife of Akiva: Women in Ancient Israel," Video Lecture by Dr. Henry Abramson, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rabbi_Akiva&oldid=999775410, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia without a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The high conception of woman's dignity, which Akiva shared in common with most other, Aleksandrov, G. S. "The Role of Aqiba in the Bar Kochba Rebellion." And yet, on that very same day, in response to Moshe’s request to understand the ways of G-d, G-d declared to Moshe that, “No man can see My face and live” (Shemot 33:20). Also are not all the intrepretations of the mitzvot are "fences" built by the Rabbis around the true spirit of the Law? [3][93], This was not the only occasion on which Akiva was made to feel the truth of his favorite maxim ("Whatever God does, He does for the best"). When Turnus Rufus, as he is called in Jewish sources, ordered Akiva's execution, Akiva is said to have recited his prayers calmly, though suffering agonies; and when Rufus asked him whether he was a sorcerer, since he felt no pain, Akiva replied, "I am no sorcerer; but I rejoice at the opportunity now given to me to love my God 'with all my life,' seeing that I have hitherto been able to love Him only 'with all my means' and 'with all my might,'" and began reciting the Shema, with the word "[G-d is] One!" G-d responds that, “There is one who, in the future and the end of some generations, will expound from each crown mountains and mountains of laws, and Akiva the son of Joseph is his name”. The night, however, was as bright as the finest summer's day. Upon seeing this, Moshe exclaimed, "Lord of the Universe, this is the Torah and this is the reward!’ Once again, G-d tells him, “Shut up: This is My decree.”. And G-d asks us to accept, even if we cannot understand, that He does not always do so in the manner that we would like[5]. If it be out of poverty that you do this, I will take care of your needs." Moses' request to be allowed to see this man was granted; but he became much dismayed as he listened to Akiva's teaching; for he could not understand it. [4] All of the translations I have seen render the Hebrew setok as “be silent”. Horrified, Moses demands God explain His actions, at which point God commands Moses to be silent and respect His judgement. Sanhedrin 96b in Yad HaRav Herzog manuscript (text: מבני בניו שלסיסרא לימדו תורה בירושלם ומנו ר' עקיבה) but not other manuscripts; "Tragedy in Perspective: Why Did Rabbi Akiva Laugh?" Besides Eliezer, Akiva studied under Joshua ben Hananiah[6] and Nachum Ish Gamzu. A most appropriate question, especially for someone described as “exceedingly humble, more than any person on the face of the earth” (Bamidbar 12:3). [3] Some modern scholars argue that Akiva's thousands of students died fighting for Bar Kochba, but this opinion was first formulated by Nachman Krochmal around 200 years ago and has no earlier source. Torah in Motion USA: 501(c)(3) The Talmud relates that once Elijah the prophet assumed the guise of a poor man and came to their door to beg some straw for a bed for his wife[3] after she had given birth. Whatever the child says will determine if we must read from a new sefer Torah. Yet G-d, rather shockingly, tells Moshe, “Shut up[4]: This is My decree.” Moshe then asks to see Rabbi Akiva’s reward, and is shown his flesh being weighed at the market-stalls. Ben Kalba Sabu'a fell at Akiva's feet and gave him half his wealth.[16][18]. https://www.google.com/maps/place/Tomb+of+Rabbi+Akiva/@32.7885236,35.5267303,17z/data=!4m12!1m6!3m5!1s0x151c3e53ea17f955:0xfdbe2f6524540078!2sTomb+of+Rabbi+Akiva!8m2!3d32.7885191!4d35.528919!3m4!1s0x151c3e53ea17f955:0xfdbe2f6524540078!8m2!3d32.7885191!4d35.528919, "An Ancient Jewish Primer (The Alphabet of Rabbi Akiva)". Upon his inquiry as to what these might be for, he received the answer, "There will come a man, named Akiva ben Yosef, who will deduce halakhot from every little curve and crown of the letters of the Law." As the fundamental principle of his system, Akiva enunciates his conviction that the mode of expression used by the Torah is quite different from that of every other book. Rabbi Akiva is one of the most famous and beloved figures in Jewish history. An imperial princess suddenly became insane, in which condition she threw a chest containing imperial treasures into the sea. [68] The Mishna of Akiva, as his pupil Rabbi Meir had taken it from him, became the basis of the Six Orders of the Mishna. Still less could dogma serve the purpose, for dogmas were always repellent to rabbinical Judaism, whose very essence is development and the susceptibility to development. The great scholar, who had supported Bar Kochba in his revolt against Rome, gathered people together and gave public Torah lectures. Rabbi Akiva and the Tragic Death of his Talmidim Part 1 - Duration: 22:30. [3][6] She stood loyally by her husband during the period of his late initiation into rabbinic studies after he was 40 years of age. According to some sources, he was descended from converts to Judaism. It was cast upon the shore close to the house of Akiva's creditor, so that when the matrona went to the shore to demand of the sea the amount she had lent Akiva, the ebbing tide left boundless riches at her feet. It was precisely because of the breakdown of civil discourse and respect for one another that they were afflicted with the plague and died. [97] Another version of this story exists in which Johanan ben Zakkai's name is given in place of Akiva. The most famous of those killed by the Romans was undoubtedly Rabbi Akiva. While that is nicer, I do believe that in context, the translation used above (and one consistent with modern-day Hebrew) is more powerful. Rabbi Akiva died a martyr's death at the hands of the Romans in the early years of the second century of the Common Era. He pondered also the nature of that bond. While the destruction and subsequent exile was a major blow to the Jewish nation, there was always the Torah that kept us strong, giving us vital energy to survive as a nation throughout this long and bitter exile. He returned twelve years later escorted by 24,000 disciples. [89] It is related that, during his stay in Rome, Akiva became intimately acquainted with the Jewish proselyte Ketia bar Shalom, a very influential Roman (according to some scholars identical with Flavius Clemens, Domitian's nephew[90]), who, before his execution for pleading the cause of the Jews, bequeathed to Akiva all his possessions. [3][25] Akiva filled the office of an overseer of the poor. He believed that Bar Kokhba was the Moshiach (messiah), though some other rabbis openly ridiculed him for that belief (the Talmud records another rabbi as saying, "Akiva, grass will grow in your cheeks and still the son of David will not have come.") July 19, 2011. "Toward a Profile of a Tanna, Aqiba ben Joseph. Genealogy profile for Rabbi Akiva Sofer of Pressburg - The Daas Sofer Rabbi Akiva Sofer-Schreiber (1878 - 1959) - Genealogy Genealogy for Rabbi Akiva Sofer-Schreiber (1878 - 1959) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. ... who lived in Safed. "Is there no help for you?" Examples include the oil and the flour of the korban mincha, the two goats—one for G-d and one for Azazel—of Yom Kippur, the four species of the lulav, the two parshiot of the mezuzah, and the four parshiot of the tefillin. Rabbi Akiva was troubled his whole life trying to understand the meaning of the Shema. Like Philo,[75] who saw in the Hebrew construction of the infinitive with the finite form of the same verb and in certain particles (adverbs, prepositions, etc.) Our Sages (Moed Katan 28a) teach that the death of the righteous atones[1], and it is thus hard to think of anything more appropriate to recite on the Day of Atonement. And I said to myself, when will I ever be able to fulfill this command? During the first 40 years of his life he was unlettered and unschooled.Imagine! Akiva stopped him and inquired: "My son, why do you work so hard? No sooner had they left it than the cavern closed of its own accord, so that no one has found it since. Every peculiarity of diction, every particle, every sign, is to be considered as of higher importance, as having a wider relation and as being of deeper meaning than it seems to have. Rabbi Akiva's Death . Akiva ascertained that the royal chamber was adorned with white marble statuary, and, based on the theory that a child is similar in nature to whatever its parents gazed upon while conceiving the child, he exonerated the queen from suspicion. If we do so, we can be assured that the 13 attributes, recited over and over and over again during the Yamim Noraim, will serve as a medium to attaining atonement (see Rosh Hashanah 17b). The Sages taught: One time, after the bar Kokheva rebellion, the evil empire of Rome decreed that Israel may not engage in the study and practice of Torah. It is believed that he died during the Bar Kochba Revolt in 132 CE, but his date of birth is unclear, as the only sources for his life appear in the Talmud Pronounced: TALL-mud, Origin: Hebrew, the set of teachings and commentaries on the Torah that form the basis for Jewish law. With Yom Kippur being a happy day, its recital is meant to both atone for and inspire us. "Seasons: The Bostoner Rebbetzin remembers and reflects on the occasion of the first yahrtzeit of Grand Rabbi Levi Yitzchak HaLevi Horowitz, ztz"l, 18 Kislev 5771". [3], But he is far from representing strict justice as the only attribute of God: in agreement with the ancient Israel theology of the מדת הדין, "the attribute of justice", and מדת הרחמים, "the attribute of mercy,"[3][54] he teaches that God combines goodness and mercy with strict justice. It was not long before Rabbi Akiva was charged and convicted. Again it happened that Rabban Gamliel, Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria, Rabbi Joshua and Rabbi Akiva went up to Jerusalem.When they reached Mt. Take your Daf to the next level! "[88], Akiva taught thousands of students: on one occasion, twenty-four thousand students of his died in a plague. He was incarcerated and tried by the Romans for his “crime” of publicly teaching Torah. Then he said the Shema, he extended the final word Echad ("One") until his life expired with that word. His death--with the Shema on his lips--became the model for martyrs throughout Jewish history, and his story is even included in … [86] This story gives a picture of Akiva's activity as the father of Talmudic Judaism. The greatest tannaim of the middle of the second century came from Akiva's school, notably Rabbi Meir, Judah bar Ilai, Simeon bar Yochai, Jose ben Halafta, Eleazar ben Shammai, and Rabbi Nehemiah. [43] This serves at least to show how strong in later ages was the recollection of Akiva's philosophical speculation.[3]. Akiva said to him, "I am that man". (It then lists those mitzvot where partial fulfilment is better than none, such as the tefillin shel Yad and tefillin shel Rosh, which explains why the laws of tefillin are found in masechet Menachot. Jewish sources relate that he was subjected to combing, a Roman torture in which the victim's skin was flayed with iron combs. [82] This is quite remarkable, seeing that in matrimonial legislation he went so far as to declare every forbidden union as absolutely void[83] and the offspring as illegitimate. He is referred to in the Talmud as Rosh la-Hakhamim "Chief of the Sages". That the death of Rabbi Akiva is discussed in masechet Menachot highlights the beautifully discursive, yet precisely edited, nature of the Talmud. The lack of any systematized collection of the accumulated halachot rendered impossible any presentation of them in form suitable for practical purposes. [17] Returning at the end of twelve years accompanied by 12,000 disciples, on the point of entering his home he overheard his wife say to a neighbor who was critical of his long absence: "If I had my wish, he should stay another twelve years at the academy." And when a great Sage dies, “all of Israel mourns”,  all must do teshuva. Instead, G-d revealed His 13 attributes, attributes that we who are created in G-d’s image are to follow. [3][38], The version in the Babylonian Talmud tells it as a response of Akiva to his students, who asked him how he could yet offer prayers to God. The most common version of Akiva's death is that the Roman government ordered him to stop teaching Torah, on pain of death, and that he refused. […] At the same time, it is fair to consider the Mishnah of Judah ha-Nasi (called simply "the Mishnah"), as well as the majority of all halakhic Midrashim now extant, as derived from the school of Akiva. And not only was he unlearned, but resentful of those who were. According to another source,[19] Akiva saw that at some future time he would take in marriage the wife of Turnus Rufus (his executioner, also known as Quintus Tineius Rufus) after she converted to Judaism, for which reason he spat on the ground (for having come from a fetid drop), smiled (at her conversion) and wept (at such beauty eventually rotting in the dust after death). Ben Kalba Sabu'a replied, "Had I known that he would learn even one chapter or one single halakha, [I would not have made the vow]". "[3][74] Akiva made the accumulated treasure of the oral law—which until his time was only a subject of knowledge, and not a science—an inexhaustible mine from which, by the means he provided, new treasures might be continually extracted. When I died, my wife was pregnant; but I have little hope that she will give my child proper training." One of the most moving parts of the Yom Kippur davening is the recital of the asara harugei malchut, the ten rabbinic leaders martyred by the Romans. Justice as an attribute of God must also be exemplary for man. Rabbi Akiva laughed. The ninth of Tishrei, just before Yom Kippur, marked the day on which Rabbi Akiva ben-Yosef was publicly executed by Rome.. After the fall of. "[3], Concerning end times, Akiva interpreted Bible prophecy using what is now called the historicist methodology, which recognizes the day-year principle and the four kingdoms of Daniel 2 (i.e., Babylon, Media/Persia, Greece and Rome). Strict monotheist that Akiva was, he protested against any comparison of God with the angels, and declared the plain interpretation of כאחד ממנו[46] as meaning "like one of us" to be arrant blasphemy. [3][51] Similarly, he recognizes as the chief and greatest principle of Judaism the command, "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. A heavenly voice went out and announced: "Blessed are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your life expired with "Echad". On Tisha B’Av, it is included as part of the mourning process on the saddest day of the year. He considered friendly intercourse with these semi-Jews as desirable on political as well as on religious grounds, and he permitted—in opposition to tradition—not only eating their bread,[81] but also eventual intermarriage. Means for the theoretical study of the halachah were also scant; both logic and exegesis—the two props of the Halakah—being differently conceived by the various ruling tannaim, and differently taught. [3][66] Akiva probably also provided for a revised text of the Targums; certainly, for the essential base of the Targum Onkelos, which in matters of Halakah reflects Akiva's opinions completely.[3][67]. 10. On the death of R. Eliezer, R. Akiva was distraught over the loss of such a great master of Torah. The Mishnah (Menachot 27a) teaches that regarding the “kometz, a small part invalidates the majority”, meaning that even if even the smallest amount of flour is missing from the handful, the entire korban is invalidated. One day, the prison guard stopped Rabbi Yehoshua, accusing him (falsely) of bringing Rabbi Akiva too much water. The Talmud records him as saying that he had such hatred for Torah scholar… [3], If the older Halakha is to be considered as the product of the internal struggle between Phariseeism and Sadduceeism, the Halacha of Akiva must be conceived as the result of an external contest between Judaism on the one hand and Hellenism and Hellenistic Christianity on the other. For our purposes, the story begins with Moshe asking G-d why He is putting crowns on certain letters of the sefer Torah. But he was not opposed to a private reading of the Apocrypha,[3] as is evident from the fact that he himself makes frequent use of Sirach. [3][30], Akiva allegedly took part in the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136, but his role here cannot be historically determined. [42], A tannaitic tradition mentions that of the four who entered paradise, Akiva was the only one that returned unscathed. [21], Once he was called upon to decide between a dark-skinned king and the king's wife; the wife having been accused of infidelity after bearing a white child. [56][57], As to the question concerning the frequent sufferings of the pious and the prosperity of the wicked—truly a burning one in Akiva's time—this is answered by the explanation that the pious are punished in this life for their few sins, in order that in the next they may receive only reward; while the wicked obtain in this world all the recompense for the little good they have done, and in the next world will receive only punishment for their misdeeds. Weiss. The motive behind this marriage is not given. "[3][87], The aggadah explains how Akiva, in the prime of life, commenced his rabbinical studies. When his wife went out to greet him, some of his students, not knowing who she was, sought to restrain her. 137 CE) lived through the destruction of the second Holy Temple, and his students passed away sometime after the destruction. When they reached the Temple Mount, they saw a fox emerging from the place of the Holy of Holies.The others started weeping; Rabbi Akiva … [3][9] Akiva remained in Lod[3][10] as long as Eliezer dwelt there, and then moved his own school to Beneberak. [62] Akiva stoutly defended, however, the canonicity of the Song of Songs, and Esther. Torah in Motion Travel: TICO reg #: 50022047, Pesachim 29: Enjoying Some Chametz on Pesach  ». Rabbi Akiva and the Tragic Death of his Talmidim Part 3 - Duration: 23:05. [3][94], Another legend according to which the gates of the infernal regions opened for Akiva is analogous to the more familiar tale that he entered paradise and was allowed to leave it unscathed. [3][95] There exists the following tradition: Akiva once met a coal-black man carrying a heavy load of wood and running with the speed of a horse. Rabbi Tarfon was considered as one of Akiva's masters,[8] but the pupil outranked his teacher and he became one of Akiva's greatest admirers. We will touch on just part of the story now, and, please G-d, will return to this story in our next post. When it is unclear how to read a letter, the example of the Gemara is whether a letter might be a vav or a yud, one should call upon a child, one who is neither too smart (who might figure out the proper letter based on the context) nor too foolish. Akiva persevered until his pupil was able to officiate as reader in the synagogue; and when there for the first time he recited the prayer, "Bless the Lord!" 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